CCNA: EIGRP

4 minute read

Description:

IP 88 / RFC 7868

Cisco proprietary, Autonomous systems that share routing tables, Advanced distance-vector routing protocol, Supports VLSM, Uses DUAL for quick convergence

EIGRPv2:

R2(config)#router eigrp
R2(config-router)#eigrp router-id 10.0.0.1
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 # use wildcard masks instead of subnet masks
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary # tells it not to send summary addresses. Good if you are using classless routing. Common.
R2(config-router)#default information originate # distributes default gateway
R2(config-router)#passive-interface fa0/0 # use this command to set an interface you don't want to share details to. Type "passive-interface default" to make all ports passive.
R2(config-router)#restribute static # sends out static routes?
R2(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.2 fa0/4 #I've never had to do this because it learns automatically
R2(config-router)#metric weights tos k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 # to change default k values
R2(config-router)#maximum-paths 4 # change load-balancing options
R2(config-router)#variance 2 # https://supportforums.cisco.com/document/96651/troubleshooting-eigrp-variance-command
R2(config-router)#traffic-share balanced # used for load balancing. It is enabled by default and does not appear in the running configuration, even if manually configured.
redistribute static metric [bandwidth] [delay] [reliability] [load] [MTU] # example above, not on CCNA.

Interface Commands:

Router(config)#int fa0/1
R1(config-if)#ip hello-interval eigrp 1 3 # ip hello-interval eigrp # replace ip with ipv6 for ipv6
R1(config-if)#ip hold-time eigrp 1 3 # ip hold-time eigrp # replace ip with ipv6 for ipv6
R1(config-if)#ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 75 # ip bandwidth-percent eigrp # replace ip with ipv6 for ipv6
R1(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 150 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 # this creates a summary address (static with a metric of 5)
R1(config-if)#bandwidth 1544# Cosmetic command. Takes 10,000,000 and divides by lowest interface bandwidth, rounded down. K1 value.
R1(config-if)#delay 100 # Cosmetic command. Divides sum of all delays by 10. K3 Value

EIGRPv6:

R1(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing
R1(config)#ipv6 router eigrp 1
R1(config-router)#eigrp router-id 1.1.1.1
R1(config-router)#no shutdown # has to be issued when using ipv6
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#interface GigabitEthernet0/0
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 3fff:1234:abcd:1::1/64
R1(config-if)#ipv6 enable
R1(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 1
R1(config-if)#exit

Securing With MD5:

R1#conf t
R1(config)#key chain MyKeys
R1(config)#key 0
R1(config)#key-string MyPassword
R1(config)#int fa0/1
R1(config-if)#ip authentication mode eigrp 1 md5 # replace ip with ipv6 for ipv6
R1(config-if)#ip authentication key-chain eigrp 1 MyKeys # replace ip with ipv6 for ipv6

Show Commands:

show ip eigrp neighbors # shows the retransmit interval and the queue counts for the adjacent routers also need to be checked.
show ip eigrp events
show ip eigrp interfaces
show ip eigrp topology # print Successor routes, FS routes, and routes that have not met the FC for the route specified in either command. P means passive which means it already found them. A means active which means it is actively looking - not good
show ip eigrp topology all-links # all possible routes
show ip eigrp
show ip eigrp traffic
show ip eigrp interfaces detail
show ip eigrp neighbors detail
debug eigrp packets
show ip route
show ip protocols # shows k values
show ip interface brief

IPv6

show ipv6 eigrp neighbors
show ipv6 route
show ipv6 protocols
show ipv6 interface brief
show ipv6 eigrp interfaces

Main Notes:

Things that have to match between routers:
-AS numbers
-K values

K Values
K1= Bandwidth – on
K2 = Load – off
K3 = Delay – on
K4/K5 = Reliablility – off

Types of Packets:
Hello – Unreliable / Multicast – Forms relationship
Update – Reliable / Multicast/Unicast – Sends updates
Acknowledgment – Unreliable / Unicast – Acknowledges the update, query, and reply messages.
Query – Reliable / Unicast/Multicast – Asks about routes
Reply – Reliable / Unicast – Response to a query

DUAL Algorithm Terms:
# determines the best loop-free path and backup paths
Successor – Neighboring router that is used for forwarding packets

Feasible Successor (FS) – Neighboring router that has a loop-free backup path to the same network as the Successor and satisfies the Feasibility Condition (FC)

Feasible Distance (FD) – The lowest calculated metric to reach the destination network. how far from you to get somewhere.

Reported Distance (RD) or Advertised Distance (AD) – The total metric to a destination network. how far from your neighbor.

Feasible Condition or Feasibility Condition (FC) – Condition is met when a neighbors Reported Distance (RD) to a network is less than the local routers feasible distance.

*To be considered a FS, the AD must be less than the FD of the successor*
If there is a FS that doesn’t make the cut, it will still be used – just not right away.

DV (Distance Vector) protocol loop prevention:
Maximum distance – Hop limits
Route poisoning –  a method that prevents a certain network from sending data packets to a path destination that has already became invalid.
Triggered updates – Don’t have to wait to send an update
Split horizon – Cannot send messages on interface that received them.
Hold down timers – Have to wait a certain time before a route can come back up.

It builds these 3 tables in this order:

  1. Neighbor table – show ip eigrp neighbors
  2. Topology table – show ip eigrp topology
  3. Routing table – show ip route

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